What is your Vision Quest?


A vision quest is a rite of passage, similar to an initiation, in some Native American cultures. It is a turning point in life taken before puberty to find oneself and the intended spiritual and life direction. When an older child is ready, he or she will go on a personal, spiritual quest alone in the wilderness, often in conjunction with a period of fasting. This usually lasts for a number of days while the child is tuned into the spirit world. Usually, a Guardian animal will come in a vision or dream, and the child’s life direction will appear at some point. The child returns to the tribe, and once the child has grown, will pursue that direction in life. After a vision quest, the child may apprentice an adult in the tribe of the shown direction (Medicine Man, boatmaker, etc).

The vision quest may be a part of shamanism, more exactly, the learning and initiation process of the apprentice for achieving the ability for shamanism, mostly under the guidance of an older shaman.

A vision quest may include long walks in uninhabited, monotonous areas (tundra, inland, mountain); fasting; sleep deprivation; being closed in a small room (e.g. igloo). The technique may be similar to sensory deprivation to a rite of cleansing and purification. One objective is to commune with the other side.

In traditional Lakota culture the Hanblecheyapi (vision quest, literally “crying for a vision”) is one of seven main rites. Vision quest preparations involve a time of fasting, the guidance of a tribal Medicine Man and sometimes ingestion of natural entheogens; this quest is undertaken for the first time in the early teenage years. The quest itself is usually a journey alone into the wilderness seeking personal growth and spiritual guidance from the spirit, sometimes Wakan Tanka. Traditionally, the seeker finds a place that they feel is special, and sits in a 10 foot circle and brings nothing in from society with the exception of water. A normal Vision Quest usually lasts two to four days within this circle, in which time the seeker is forced to look into his soul.

It is said that a strong urge to leave the quest area will come to the seeker and a feeling of insanity may set in. However, the seeker normally overcomes this by reminding him or herself of the overall outcome of the quest, causing the mind to stop wandering on random thoughts. The individual can generally find solace in the fact that he or she will not die in just two to four days.

Some have claimed grand visions on their first Vision Quest while others have not. It is an individual experience and often subject to the emotional, spiritual, and physical make-up of the person.

Native American totems are said to be capable of speaking through all things, including messages or instructions in the form of an animal or bird. Generally a physical representation of the vision or message such as a feather, fur or a rock is collected and placed in the seeker’s medicine bag to ensure the power of the vision will stay with the individual to remind, protect or guide him.

Since the beginning of this cycle of time, humanity has returned to nature to connect with spirit and to seek answers to problems of the physical realms, especially in this timeline when the messages of prophecy reveal themselves to the seeker.

There is something about being alone in the wilderness that brings us closer and more aware of the 4 elements and our connection to a creational source. We go to seek truths and divine realization, just as many of the ancient prophets did in their time.

In its own way, the vision quest is an Initiation not unlike the days of the ancient mystery school teachings where one learns about themselves and the mysteries of the universe are often revealed to them. It is a time of internal transformation and renewal. Who am I? Why am I here? Physical surroundings allow the soul to move into the grid or the collective unconsciousness.

Though the Vision Quest is associated with Native Americans traditions – it is practiced all over the world. As an expression of the archetypical “Heroic Journey,” the vision quest has been enacted in religious pilgrimages, mythological tales (including the story of the search for the Holy Grail), and our own daily pursuit of truth and purpose. Today, there are companies that sponsor these journeys. They provide a wilderness area in which it is to occur, and they give instructions and guidance before and after the event. It might take a day, a week, a month – whatever is necessary to complete the transformation and get the answer one seeks.

Preparation:

      – able to fast

– able to camp out for long periods of time

– knowledge of first aid

– prepare sleeping equipment – or sleep on the ground.

– knowledge of spiritual things like meditation

– bring a spiritual instrument so you can play or chant

– be comfortable with the solitude

– if the weather permits you may wish to remove all clothing or cover yourself in a blanket

– create a sacred stone circle on the ground in which the person sits

– a journal to record your experiences

Now you are ready to go out alone in nature to spend the time seeking greater truths through dreams, meditations or hallucinations. This transformational experience has been sometimes been done with the use ofhallucinogens such as peyote, mescaline, and the South American Iawaska plant during sacred initiation rites. These plants were held as sacred teachers from the plant kingdom. The insights during the sacred space allowed the veils between this world and the next to be pulled back and for the individual voyager to transcend himself and this dimension. You may, or may not, understand the messages received. It may take time for you to process affecting dreams, synchronicities and more in your life.

The benefits of a vision quest

      Curing emotional, physical, spiritual illnesses

Discover your mission here

Commune with nature, spirit, your spirit guides or deceased ancestors

Move beyond outmoded paradigms

Find truth, balance and peace


Vision Quest

by Black Elk

A Vision Quest is an experience of deeper understanding of Nature and Spirit. It is a ceremony practiced by American Indians.

To prepare for this “insight” one must first cleanse the body and mind by going through a Inipi or sweat lodge.

Then with the help of a Holy Man is told certain things and must go to a spot, usually on a holy mountain, and stay 2 or 3 days

During this time no food is eaten and one does not sleep but spends the time in deep prayer and observation.

Many times, but not always, there is a vision. This vision is then shared with the Holy Man to help learn of its meaning.

Sometimes the meaning is not shown for several years afterward.

This is part of a vision quest I was told to share with all who may be interested.

Once, I went to pray at the top of the sacred mountain of my ancestors.

As I climbed to the top I heard voices singing as the wind blew the leaves.

At the top I saw, made from many stones, a large circle with a cross inside.

I knew from my teachings that this represented the circle of life and the four directions.

I sat down by the edge of this circle to pray.

I thought this is only a symbol of the universe.

“True,” a very soft voice said.

“Look and you will see the Center of the Universe.

Look at every created thing.”

As I looked around I saw that every created thing had a thread of smoke or light going from it.

The voice whispered, “This cord that every created thing has is what connects it to the Creator.

Without this cord it would not exist.”

As I watched I saw that all these threads, coming from everything, went to the center of the circle where the four directions were one place (the center of the cross).

I saw that all these threads were tied together or joined here at this spot.

The voice spoke again, “This is the Center of the Universe. The place where all things join together and all things become one. The place where everything begins and ends. The place inside everything created.”

That’s when I understood that all of creation, the seen and the unseen, was all related.

The voice spoke one last time, “Yes, now you know the Center of the Universe.”

I pray to the four directions…..hear me.

I pray to the West which gives us rest and reflection.

I thank you for these gifts for without them we could not live.

I pray to the North which gives us patience and purity.

I thank you for these gifts for without them we could not live.

I pray to the East which gives us energy and emotions.

I thank you for these gifts for without them we could not live.

I pray to the South which gives us discipline and direction.

I thank you for these gifts for without them we could not live.

Grandmother, share with me your wisdom, and I thank you for this gift.

Grandfather, share with me your strength, and I thank you for this gift.

 

http://www.sunnyway.com/runes/americanstones.html

Gebo: (G: Gift.) Gifts, both in the sense of sacrifice and of generosity, indicating balance. All matters in relation to exchanges, including contracts, personal relationships and partnerships. Gebo Merkstave (Gebo cannot be reversed, but may lie in opposition): Greed, loneliness, dependence, over-sacrifice. Obligation, toll, privation, bribery.

 

RUNES, ALPHABET OF MYSTERY

Ship Pendent

North American Rune Stones

Several rune stones have been found in the United States, most notably the Kensington Runestone in Minnesota and the Heavener Stone in Oklahoma. There is considerable debate over their age and validity. The “Kensington Runestone” is a slab of gray stone, measuring 36 inches long, 16 inches wide, and 6 inches thick. It contains runic writing along the face of the stone and along one edge. The stone was found by a Minnesota farmer named Olaf Ohman in November of 1898 while a digging up a poplar tree stump on the southern slope of a 50-foot high knoll. The stone was buried face down about six inches below the surface, with the tree roots wrapped around it. Mr. Ohman and his sons saw the runic letters but did not know what they were.

Unfortunately, the stone was not left in place, so they were unable to demonstrate its obvious age from the growth pattern of the tree. The stone was sent to the University of Minnesota and then to Chicago. It was was studied by runic scholars, who interpreted the inscription to be an account of Norse explorers in the 14th Century. Many authorities who have since examined the stone have claimed it a forgery, but others are equally certain of its authenticity.

It is known King Magnus of Sweden sent that a party to Greenland in 1355. They never returned. It is very possible that these men were from that party. The stone bears the date of 1362. The transliteration of the text is generally accepted as:

“Eight Goths and 22 Norwegians on a journey of exploration from Vinland very far west. We had camp by 2 rocky islands one day’s journey north from this stone. We were out fishing one day. After we came home we found 10 men red with blood and dead. AVM [Ave Maria] save us from evil.”

The inscription along the edge of the stone says:

“Have 10 men by the sea to look after our ships 14 days’ journey from this island. Year 1362.”

The stone is now in the Runestone Museum in Alexandria, Minnesota, near where the stone was found.

Update: At a 2000 conference in St. Paul, attended by archaeologists from about 20 states and three Canadian provinces, a Minnesota geologist and a Wisconsin chemist presented what they say is indisputable evidence that the runestone inscription is “real” and old, probably from the 1300s. Scott Wolter, president of American Petrographic services, is a licensed Minnesota geologist. He was instrumental in analyzing the stone’s surfaces with Barry Hanson, a chemist and project manager for nonprofit archeology group, Archeology ITM, and Paul Weiblen, professor emeritus in geophysics at the University of Minnesota. Weiblen published a 45-page report on the mineralogy of the stone, and concludes that the carvings are significantly older than 1898, when it was discovered.

Kensington Rune Stone

Mr Ohmnan

Mr. Ohman and the Runestone

Kensington Map

Possible Viking Routes to Minnesota from Greenland:
via the Hudson Bay and the Nelson and Red Rivers
or via the St. Lawrence River and the Great Lakes.

Dr. Richard Nielsen, president of Houston Texas-based Nielsen Engineering, studies linguistics as a hobby. His research involving 14th century legal documents known as “Swedish Diplomas”, reveals linguistic evidence linking the writing style and expressions on the stone to the vernacular found in historical legal documents of the period between 1355 and 1375. During the 14th century many of the educated scribes died of the bubonic plague. Less educated writers introduced vernacular into the legal documents during that period. Download his 74-page article in PDF format.

Thomas Reiersgord, author of The Kensington Rune Stone: Its Place in History, believes that the “10 men red with blood”, were not killed by Indians, but were victims of the bubonic plague, carried in its incubation period from Europe, by one or more carriers in the group. In its pneumatic form the plague spreads and kills rapidly, the victims vomiting blood as well as covered with bloody pustules.

The “Heavener Runestone” of Oklahoma is a slab about 12 feet high, 10 feet wide, and 16 inches thick with runic letters spelling out the word “Gaomedat”. By reversing two runes which appear to be different from the others, the inscription becomes “Glomedal”, or “Glome’s Valley”. It could also be rendered “G. Nomedal”. Nomedal is a Norwegian family name. Thanks to the efforts of Gloria Farley, the area surrounding the stone is now the Heaven Rune Stone State Park. The stone is now protected inside a building erected around it. The official theory is that the stone was erected as a boundary marker between 600 A.D. and 900 A.D.

Heavener Rune StoneOld-timers related that there were many more stones in the area, but most were destroyed by treasure hunters in the 1930s and 1940s. Neither of the Heavener Runestones Numbers Two or Three have enough runes to render a translatable message. In 1967, another stone was found near Ponteau, Oklahoma.

Heavener 2Heavener #2

The second stone, which measured 30 by 14 inches and 20 inches thick, shows 12-inch, three-pronged symbol on a stem, the runic “R”. Below it on the side surface was a small mark which later proved to be a “bindrune,” or combination of two runes. This stone is called “Heavener Runestone Number Two.

Heavener 3Inscription on Heavener #3

On Heavener Three an “X,” a “turkey track,” and an arrow shape: the runes for “G,” “R,” and “T,” respectively. The letters, 6 to 9 inches tall, appear in a triangular pattern on a stone 5 1/2 feet long. Neither of the Heavener Runestones Numbers Two or Three have enough runes to render a translatable message.

Poteau Rune StonePoteau Stone

The Poteau stone, found by schoolboys in 1967, is 15 inches long. There are seven characters in a straight line, l 1/2 to 2 inches high. The runes showed very plainly because the bottom of the grooves were in a lighter colored layer of the stone, while the surface was dark. Tool marks in the grooves showed that the letters had been made with a punch, like the Heavener Runestone. Four of the runes are duplicates of those on the Heavener Runestone, and three seemed to be variants of others on it. From the site of the Poteau stone, the Heavener Runestone on the side of Poteau Mountain lies about 10 miles to the southeast. The original sties of Heavener Runestones Numbers Two and Three fall in a line between them.

There are several more theories regarding the Heavener stones. In 1967, Alf Monge, a former US Army cryptographer asserted that the symbols are a runic puzzle, indicating a date, equivalent to November 11, 1012, St. Martin’s Day, on our calendar. According to Monge, all of the cryptic runic messages in North American and those found in Stave Churches in Norway, are deciphered as dates of church holidays. He feels there is evidence that the creator of this puzzle and others found in North America was Eirik Gnupsson, known as Henricus, who was made Bishop of Greenland in 1112. Henricus was believed to have made several trips to Vinland and farther inland. Monge says Henricus left seven runic puzzles including the Kensington Rune Stone, the Heavener Rune Stone and the Spirit Pond Rune Stone. This is discussed in two books by O.G. Landsverk: Runic Records of the Norsemen in America, Erik J Friis Publisher, 1974, and Ancient Norse Messages on American Stones, Norseman Press, 1969., and in Earl Syversen’s Norse Runic Inscriptions: with their long-forgotten cryptography, Vine Hill Press.

Monge’s solution to the Poteau inscription is another date, November 11, 1017 A.D., exactly five years later than the date he said was on the Heavener Runestone. The seventh symbol on the Poteau Runestone is not in the standard runic alphabets but was a runic symbol for the numeral 17.

The early Norse calendar is based upon a cycle of 19 days, or Golden Numbers. The Younger Futhark was used to number those days. There are, of course, only 16 staves in the Younger Futhark, so three new symbols were devised to represent 17, 18, and 19.

Golden NumbersYet another stone was found in Shawnee, Oklahoma. Its five runes, all from the 24-rune Elder Futhark, spells out “MEDOK.” Medok is similar to Madoc, the name of a Welsh prince. Ancient records state that he came to America in the year 1170 A.D., then returned to Wales for ten shiploads of colonists which he led up the Mississippi River. However, the Welsh did not use third century A.D. Norse runes and the name Medok is not Madoc. Alf Monge studied the inscription on the Shawnee Runestone and said it was another Norse cryptopuzzle, giving the date November 24, 1024 A.D.

Shawnee Rune StoneShawnee Runestone

While agreeing that the Heavener stone bears a cryptic message, Dr. Lee Woodward, a Sallisaw, Oklahoma minister, believes it is a monument to Rene Robert Cavelier de la Salle, a French explorer, who was murdered in 1687. Woodward asserts that la Salle was killed in the area of Heavener, not in East Texas as is commonly believed. He concludes that the stone was carved by Gemme Hiens, whom he refers to as a “German-English linguistic and artistic genius who had been a companion of La Salle from 1684-1687… Hiens did his monument in form of a runic riddle, not wanting all to readily recognize what he was doing. His riddle called for identification of a ‘Grandly Famous French Man and his dates’ (G. NOM E (t) DAT(es). He then cleverly answered the riddle in a way which be very clearly seen at the monument (D’ La Salle, 21 Novembre 1643-19 Mars 1687). Those are birth and death dates of La Salle.” Dr Lee Woodward’s theory is explained in his book, Secret La Salle Monument and Historical Marker,

Richard Nielsen, an American engineer and Norse scholar, feels that the runes should be read literally, not as puzzles. He says that the second and last runes on the Heavener Runestone, which had been considered an “A” and a “T,” were actually versions of “L,” and that the seventh rune on the Poteau inscription was a double “L” in the form of a bindrune, a combination of two runes using one vertical stroke for a stem line. Nielsen believes that all the runes on the Heavener, Poteau, and Shawnee inscriptions are from the Elder Futhark The Heavener runes transliterated into “G L O M E D A L.” , “Glome’s Valley”. The Poteau runes read “G L O I A L L W (ALU).” He says that he found that “Gloi,” is a nickname for “Glome,” thus the two stones are related to the same man. The word “ALU” is a magical formula. This language was used around 600 A.D. and is the key to the new dating of the Oklahoma Runestones. The stones were made, according to Nielsen, between 600 and 900. Nielsen’s essay “Early Scandinavian Incursions Into The Western States”, discusses the Kensington runestone as well as the Heavener stone.

Spirit Pond Rune Stone

The Spirit Pond runestones were found in Maine in 1971. One bears a rough map of the area, the second has runic writing on one side. On the third, there are ten lines of runes on one side and six on the other. The inscription tells of a sudden storm and fearful men trying to save their ship from “the foamy arms of Aegir, angry god of the sea”. This stone, too, has been called a hoax. I think that it is reasonable that Vikings, who were known to have built a settlement in Newfoundland, might very well have traveled south to Maine. As mentioned above, cryptologist Alf Monge believes that the stone is genuine, but its tale is not to be taken literally. He asserts that is a runic puzzle by Henricus, 12th century Bishop of Greenland.

LinksWhy the Kensington Runestone is Authentic, by Yuri KuchinskyDebunking the Kensington Stone Mystery by Timothy MillsIs the Kensington Runestone the Genuine Article? Two American linguists find authentic mark of antiquity on the Kensington Stone; by Keith A.J. Massey and Kevin Massey-Gillespie

Kensington Runestone Information and Analysis – by Mike Zalar

Kensington Runestone by J. Huston McCulloch

Kensington Runestone Home Page by Bill Hoyt

Kensington Runestone Museum

Geologist thinks Kensington Runestone Not a Hoax , by Peg Meier / Star Tribune

Runestone Examined: Real or Hoax? by Scott Wolter and Sherry Veglahn, American Engineering Testing, Inc.

Cornell University News: Midwest explored by Scandinavians in Middle Ages, according to Robert A. Hall Jr., professor emeritus of linguistics.

Oklahoma Rune Stones – a chapter from Gloria Farley’s book.

“In Plain Sight”–Old World Records in Ancient America – Gloria Farley’s homepage.

Opich Family – Visit to the Heavener Runestone Site

Runic Proof – evidence of runic types found on the Codex Runicus

Spirit Pond inscription

The Spirit Pond Stones and the Mysterious “Facts” of their Fabrication, by Suzanne Carlson. See also North American Rim for further discussions of the Kensington Runestone, Sprit Pond stone and Newport Tower.

Marion Dahm – Viking Research & Exploration From Years of 1000 to 1362

Vinland Index page – this is part of the Viking Navy website. See both links for various findings and theories about Vikings in North America.

American Epigraphics -Norse Runes – discusses findings in Oregon and elsewhere.

 

BooksBlegen, Theodore C.: Kensington Rune Stone : New Light on an Old Riddle . Minnesota Historical Society, 1960, ISBN=0873510445. Flom, George Tobias. The Kensington Rune Stone: An Address. Springfield; Phillips Bros., 1910.Hall, Robert Anderson: The Kensington Rune-Stone: Authentic and Important , A Critical Edition (Edward Sapir Monograph Series in Language, Culture and Cognition, Vol. 19)Jupiter Press, 1995, ISBN=0933104316.

Hall, Robert Anderson: The Kensington Rune-Stone is Genuine , Linguistic, Practical, Methodological Considerations. Hornbeam Press, ISBN=0917496213.  

Hanson, Barry: Kensington Runestone–A Defense of Olof Ohman, The Accused Forger. Includes articles written by linguist Richard Nielsen and mineralogy explanations of recent runestone testing.

Holand, Hjalmar: : The Kensington Rune Stone: The Oldest Native Document of American History, Ephriam, WI: Private Printing, 1919.

Holand, Hjalmar R.: The Kensington Stone: A Study in Pre-Columbian American History. , Ephriam, WI: Private Printing, 1932.

Landsverk, Ole Godfred: The Kensington Rune-Stone: A Reappraisal of the Circumstances under which the Stone was Discovered, Glendale: Church Press, 1961.

Nilsestuen, Rolf M.: The Kensington Runestone Vindicated . University Press of America, 1996, ISBN= 0819197491. Nilsestuen is not a scholar, but rather an irascible retiree, who dug into and revealed the scandalous mishandling of many of the prior investigations. He rants, but he makes a strong argument.

Redmond, Jeffery R.: Viking Hoaxes in North America., New York: Carlton Press, 1979. This author asserts that the Kensington Rune Stone was a fraud.

Reiergord, Thomas: The Kensington Rune Stone: Its Place in History. Pogo Pr;, 2001. ISBN=1880654245. The language used on the rune stone is the same as the vernacular on historical legal documents written between 1355 and 1375.

Rogers, Elwin: Labyrinths of Speculation: The Kensington Rune Stone, 1898-1998. E.E. Rogers; ISBN= 1575790963.

Wahlgren, Erik: The Kensington Rune-Stone: A Mystery Solved., Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1958. He believes the runestone is a forgery.

Wahlgren, Erik: “The Runes of Kensington”. Studies in Honor of Albert Morey Sturtevant., Westport: Greenwood Press, 1970.

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http://www.sunnyway.com/runes/halristinger.html

 

 Walum Olam

http://www.library.upenn.edu/exhibits/rbm/kislak/colonial/walam1.html

http://www.library.upenn.edu/exhibits/rbm/kislak/colonial/walam2.html

 

http://www.real-dream-catchers.com/history_of_the_ojibways/wallum_olum_of_the_Lenni_Lenape/Lenni-Lenape_and_the_Red_Record.htm

 

http://books.google.com/books?id=KSgTAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA155&vq=OLUM&dq=WALAM+OLUM,+SOURCE&output=text

 

Discovesy of the Walam Olum.

As for the Lenape records, he gives this not very clear account of his acquisition of them :—

“Having obtained, through the late Dr. Ward, of Indiana, some of the original Wallam-Olum (painted record) of the Linapi Tribe of Wapihani or White River, the translation will be given of the songs annexed to each.'”

On a later page he wrote:—’

Olum implies a record, a notched stick, an engraved piece of wood or bark. It comes from ol, hollow or graved record. * * * These actual olumwere at first obtained in 1820, as a reward for a medical cure, deemed a curiosity; and were unexplicable. In 1822 were obtained from another individual the songs annexed thereto in. the original language; but no one could be found by me able to translate them. I had therefore to learn the language since, by the help of Zeisberger, Heckewelder and a manuscript dictionary, on purpose to translate them, which I only accomplished in 1833. The contents were totally unknown to me in 1824, when I published my’Annals of Kentucky.'”

I have attempted to identify this ” Dr. Ward, of Indiana;” but no such person is known in the early medical annals of that State. There is, however, an old and well-known Kentucky family of that name, who, about 1820, resided, and still do reside, in the neighborhood of Cynthiana. One of these, in 1824-25, was a friend of Rafinesque, invited him to his house, and shared his archaeological tastes, as Rafinesque

mentions in his autobiography.1 It was there, no doubt, that he copied the signs and the original text of the Walam Olum. My efforts to learn further about the originals from living members of the family have been unsuccessful. From a note in Rafinesque’s handwriting, on the title page of his MS. of 1833, it would appear that he had at least seen the wooden tablets. This note reads:—

“This Mpt & the wooden original was {sic) procured in 1822 in Kentucky—but was inexplicable till a deep study of the Linapi enabled me to translate them with explanations. (Dr. Ward.)”

The name of Dr. Ward added in brackets is, I judge, merely a note, and is not intended to imply that the sentence is a quotation.

Was it a Forgery?

The crucial question arises: Was the Walam Olum a forgery by Rafinesque?

It is necessary to ask and to answer this question, though it seems, at first sight, an insult to the memory of the man to do so. No one has ever felt it requisite to propound such an inquiry about the pieces of the celebrated Mexican collection of the Chevalier Boturini, who, as an antiquary, was scarcely less visionary than Rafinesque.

But, unquestionably, an air of distrust and doubt shadowed Rafinesque’s scientific reputation during his life, and he was not admitted on a favorable footing to the learned circles of

1 “My friend, Mr. Word, took me to Cynthiana in a gig, where I surveyed other ancient monuments.” Rafinesque, A Lift of Travels andJitsearcHts,” p. 74. (l’hila., 1836.)

the city where he spent the last fifteen years of his life. His articles were declined a hearing in its societies; and the learned linguist, Mr. Peter Stephen Duponceau, whose specialty was the Delaware language, wholly and deliberately ignored everything by the author of “The American Nations.” Why was this?

Rafinesque was poor, eccentric, negligent of his person, full of impractical schemes and extravagant theories, and manufactured and sold in a small way a secret nostrum which he called “pulmel,” for the cure of consumption. All these were traits calculated to lower him in the respect of the citizens of Philadelphia, and the consequence was, that although a member of some scientific societies, he seems to have taken no part in their proceedings, and was looked upon as an undesirable acquaintance, and as a sort of scientific outcast.

As early as 1819 Prof. Benjamin Silliman declined to publish contributions from him in the “American Journal of Science,'” and returned him his MSS. Dr. Gray strongly intimates that Rafinesque’s assertions on scientific matters were at times intentionally false, as when he said that he had seen Robin’s collection of Louisiana plants in France, whereas that botanist never prepared dried specimens; and the like.

I felt early in this investigation that Rafinesque’s assertions were, therefore, an insufficient warranty for the authenticity of this document.

As I failed in my efforts to substantiate them by local researches in Kentucky and Indiana, I saw that the evidence must come from the text itself. Nor would it be sufficient to

American Journal of Science, Vol. XL, p. 2yj, note.

prove that the words df the text were in the Lenape dialect. With Zeisberger and Heckewelder at hand, both of whose works had been years in print, it were easy to string together Lenape words.

But what Rafinesque certainly had not the ability to do, was to write a sentence in Lenape, to compose lines which an educated native would recognize as in the syntax of his own speech, though perhaps dialectically different.

This was the test that I determined to apply. I therefore communicated my doubts to my friend, the distinguished linguist, Mr. Horatio Hale, and asked him to state them to the Rev. Albert Anthony, a well educated native Delaware, equally conversant with his own tongue and with English.

Mr. Anthony considered the subject fully, and concluded by expressing the positive opinion that the text as given was a genuine oral composition of a Delaware Indian. In many lines the etymology and syntax are correct; in others there are grammatical defects, which consist chiefly in the omission of terminal inflections.

The suggestion he offered to explain these defects is extremely natural. The person who wrote down this oral explanation of the signs, or, to speak more accurately, these chants which the signs were intended to keep in memory, was imperfectly acquainted with the native tongue, and did not ‘always catch terminal sounds. The speaker also may have used here and there parts of that clipped language, or “white man’s Indian,” which I have before referred to as serving for the trading tongue between the two races.

This was also the opinion of the Moravian natives who examined the text. They all agreed that it impressed them as

I

being of aboriginal origin, though the difference of the forms of words left them often in the dark as to the meaning.

This very obscurity is in fact a proof that Rafinesque did not manufacture it. Had he done so, he would have used the ‘• Mission Delawaie” words which he found in Zeisberger. But the text has quite a number not in that dialect, nor in any of the mission dictionaries.

Moreover, had he taken the words from such sources, he would in his translation have given their correct meanings; but in many instances he is absurdly far from their sense. Thus he writes: “The word for angels, angelatawiwak, is not borrowed, but real Linapi, and is the same as the Greek word angehi ;'” whereas it is a verbal with a future sense from the very common Delaware verb angeln, to die. Many such examples will be noted in the vocabulary on a later page.

In several cases the figures or symbols appear to me to bear out the corrected translations which I have given of the lines, and not that of Rafinesque. This, it will be observed, is an evidence, not merely that he must have received this text from other hands, but the figures also, and weighs heavily in favor of the authentic character of both.

That it is a copy is also evident from some manifest mistakes in transcription, which Rafinesque preserves in his printed version, and endeavored to translate, not perceiving their erroneous *brm. Thus, in the fourth line of the first chant, he wrote owak, translating it “much air or clouds,” when it is clearly a mere transposition for woak, the Unami form of the conjunction “and,” as the sense requires. No such blunder would appear if he had forged the document.

Ths American Nations, p. 151.

It is true that a goodly share of the words in the earlier chants occur in Zeisberger. Thus it seems, at first sight, suspicious to find the three or four superlatives in III, 5, all given under examples of the superlatives, in Zeisberger’s Grammar, p. 105. It looks as if they had been bodily transferred into the song. So I thought; but afterwards I found these same superlatives in Heckewelder, who added specifically that “the Dclawarcs had formed them to address or designate the Supreme being.”1

If we assume that this song is genuine, then Zeisberger was undoubtedly familiar with some version of it; had learned it probably, and placed most of its words in his vocabulary.

Some other collateral evidences of authenticity I have referred to on previous pages (pp. 67, 89, 136).

From these considerations, and from a study of the text, the opinion I have formed of the Walam Olum is as follows :—

It is a genuine native production, which was repeated orally to some one indifferently conversant with the Delaware language, who wrote it down to the best of his ability. In its present form it can, as a whole, lay no claim either to antiquity, or to purity of linguistic form. Yet, as an authentic modern version, slightly colored by European teachings, of the ancient tribal traditions, it is well worth preservation, and will repay more study in the future than is given it in this volume. The narrator was probably one of the native chiefs or priests, who had spent his life in the Ohio and

Correspondence between the Rev. John Heckewelder and Peter S. Duponceau, Esq., p. 410.

Indiana towns of the Lenape, and who, though with some knowledge of Christian instruction, preferred the pagan rites, legends and myths of his ancestors. Probably certain lines and passages were repeated in the archaic form in which they had been handed down for generations.

Phonetic System.

The phonetic system adopted by the writer, whoever he was, is not that of the Moravian brethren. They employed the German alphabet, which does not obtain in the present text. On this point Rofinesque says: “The orthography of the Linapi names is reduced to the Spanish or French pronunciation, except sh, as in English; u, as in French; w, as in how.’n A comparison of the words with their equivalents in Zeisberger’s spelling shows that this is generally true.

It is obvious that the gutturals are few and soft, and that the process of synthesis is carried further than in the Minsi dialect. For this reason, from the introduction of peculiar words, and from the loss of certain grammatical terminations, the Minsi Delawares of to-day, to whom I have submitted it, are of the opinion that it belongs to one of the southern dialects of their nation; perhaps to the Unalachtgo, as suggested by Chief Gabriel Tobias, in his letter printed on a preceding page (p. 88).

Metrical Form.

Even to an ear not acquainted with the language, the chants of the Walam Olum are obviously in metrical arrangement. The rhythm is syllabic and accentual, with frequent 1 The American Nations, p. 115.

effort to select homophones (to which the correct form of the words is occasionally sacrificed), and sometimes alliteration. Iteration is also called in aid, and the metrical scheme is varied in the different chants.

All these rhythmical devices appear in the native American songs of many tribes, though I cannot point to any other strictly aboriginal production in Algonkin, where a tendency toward rhyme is as prominent as in the Walam Olum. It is well to remember, however, that our material for comparison is exceedingly scanty, and also that for nearly three-fourths of a century before this song was obtained, the music-loving Moravian missionaries had made the Delawares familiar with numerous hymns in their own tongue, correctly framed and rhymed.

Piciographic System.

The pictographic system which the Walam Olum presents is clearly that of the Western Algonkins, most familiar to us through examples from the Chipeways and Shawnees. It is quite likely, indeed, that it was the work of a Shawnee, as we know that they supplied such songs, with symbols, to the Chipeways, and were intimately associated with the Delawares.

At the time Rafinesque wrote, Tanner’s Narrative had been it. print several years, and the numerous examples of Algonkin pictography it contains were before him. Yet it must be said that the pictographs of the Walam Olum have less resemblance to these than to those published by the Chipeway chief, George Copway, in 1850, and by Schoolcraft, in his “History and Statistics of the Indian Tribes.”

There is generally a distinct, obvious connection between the symbol and the sense of the text, sufficient to recall the latter to one who has made himself once thoroughly familiar with it. I have not undertaken a study of the symbols; but have confined myself to a careful reproduction of them, and the suggestion of their more obvious meanings, and their correspondences with the pictographs furnished by later writers. I shall leave it for others to determine to what extent they should be accepted as a pure specimen of Algonkin pictographic writing.

Derivation of Walam Olum.

The derivation of the name Walam Olum has been largely anticipated on previous pages. I have shown that walam (in modern Minsi, -walumiit)means “painted,” especially “painted red.” This is a secondary meaning, as the root wuli conveys the idea of something pleasant, in this connection, pleasant to the eye, fine, pretty. (See ante p. 104.)

Olum was the name of the scores, marks, or figures in use on the tally-sticks or record-boards. The native Delaware missionary, Mr. Albert Anthony, says that the knowledge of these ancient signs has been lost, but that the word olum is still preserved by the Delaware boys in their games when they keep the score by notches on a stick. These notches— not the sticks—are called to this day olum—an interesting example of the preservation of an archaic form in the language of children.

The name Walam Olum is therefore a highly appropriate one for the record, and may be translated “red Score.”

  1. He made the flies, he made the gnats.
  2. All beings were then friendly.
  3. Truly the manitos were active and kindly
  4. To those very first men, and to those first mothers; fetched them wives,
  5. And fetched them food, when first they desired it
  6. All had cheerful knowledge, all had leisure, all thought in gladness.
  7. But very secretly an evil being, a mighty magician, came on earth,
  8. And with him brought badness, quarreling, unhap

piness,

  1. Brought bad weather, brought sickness, brought

death.

  1. All this took place of old on the earth, beyond the

great tide-water, at the first.

II.

  1. Long ago there was a mighty snake and beings evil to men.
  2. This mighty snake hated those who were there (and) greatly disquieted those whom he hated.
  3. They both did harm, they both injured each other, both were not in peace.
  4. Driven from their homes they fought with this murderer.

« PreviousContinue » 5. The mighty snake firmly resolved to harm the men.

  1. He brought three persons, he brought a monster, he brought a rushing water.
  2. Between the hills the water rushed and rushed, dashing through and through, destroying much.
  3. Nanabush, the Strong White One, grandfather of beings, grandfather of men, was on the Turtle Island.
  4. There he was walking and creating, as he passed by and created the turtle.
  5. Beings and men all go forth, they walk in the floods and shallow waters, down stream thither to the Turtle Island.
  6. There were many monster fishes, which ate some of them.
  7. The Manito daughter, coming, helped with her canoe, helped all, as they came and came.
  8. [And also] Nanabush, Nanabush, the grandfather of

all, the grandfather of beings, the grandfather of men, the grandfather of the turtle.

  1. The men then were together on the turtle, like to

turtles.

  1. Frightened on the turtle, they prayed on the turtle that what was spoiled should be restored.
  2. The water ran off, the earth dried, the lakes were at rest, all was silent, and the mighty snake departed.

III.

  1. After the rushing waters (had subsided) the Lenape of the turtle were close together, in hollow houses, living together there.
  2. It freezes where they abode, it snows where they abode, it storms where they abode, it is cold where they abode.
  3. At this northern place they speak favorably of mild,

cool (lands), with many deer and buffaloes.

j

  1. As they journeyed, some being strong, some rich,

they separated into house-builders and hunters;

  1. The strongest, the most united, the purest, were the hunters.
  2. The hunters showed themselves at the north, at the cast, at the south, at the west.
  3. In that ancient country, in that northern country, in

that turtle country, the best of the Lcnape were the Turtle men.

  1. All the cabin fires of that land were disquieted, and

all said to their priest, ” Let us go.”

  1. To the Snake land to the cast they went forth, going

away, earnestly grieving.

« PreviousContinue »

  1. Split asunder, weak, trembling, their land burned,

they went, torn and broken, to the Snake Island.

  1. Those from the north being free, without care, went

forth from the land of snow, in different directions.

  1. The fathers of the Bald Eagle and the White Wolf

remain along the sea, rich in fish and muscles,

  1. Floating up the streams in their canoes, our fathers

were rich, they were in the light, when they were at those islands.

  1. Head Beaver and Big Bird said,

“Let us go to Snake Island,” they said.

  1. All say they will go along to destroy all the land.
  2. Those of the north agreed,
    Those of the east agreed.
    Over the water, the frozen sea,
    They went to enjoy it.
  3. On the wonderful, slippery water,
    On the stone-hard water all went,

On the great Tidal Sea, the muscle-bearing sea.

  1. Ten thousand at night,
    All in one night,

To the Snake Island, to the east, at night,
They walk and walk, all of them.

  1. The men from the north, the cast, the south,
    The Eagle clan, the Beaver clan, the Wolf clan,
    The best men, the rich men, the head men,

Those with wives, those with daughters, those with

dogs,

  1. They all come, they tarry at the land of the spruce

pines;

Those from the west come with hesitation.
Esteeming highly their old home at the Turtle land.

IV.

  1. Long ago the fathers of the Lenape were at the land of spruce pines.
  2. Hitherto the Bald Eagle band had been the pipe bearer,
  3. While they were searching for the Snake Island, that great and fine land.

« PreviousContinue » 4. They having died, the hunters, about to depart, met together.

  1. All say to Beautiful Head, “Be thou chief.”
  2. “Coming to the Snakes, slaughter at that Snake hill,

that they leave it”

  1. All of the Snake tribe were weak, and hid them

selves in the Swampy Vales.

  1. After Beautiful Head, White Owl was chief at Spruce Pine land.
  2. After him, Keeping-Guard was chief of that people.
  3. After him, Snow Bird was chief; he spoke of the south,
  4. That our fathers should possess it by scattering abroad.
  5. Snow Bird went south, White Beaver went east.
  6. The Snake land was at the south, the great Spruce

Pine land was toward the shore;

  1. To the cast was the Fish land, toward the lakes was

the buffalo land.

  1. After Snow Bird, the Seizer was chief, and all were killed,
  2. The robbers, the snakes, the evil men, the stone men.
  3. After the Seizer there were ten chiefs, and there was much warfare south and east.
  4. After them, the Peaceable was chief at Snake land.
  5. After him, Not-Black was chief, who was a straight man.
  6. After him, Much-Loved was chief, a good man.
  7. After him, No-Blood was chief, who walked in cleanliness.
  8. After him, Snow-Father was chief, he of the big teeth.
  9. After him, Tally-Maker was chief, who made records.
  10. After him, Shiverer-with-Cold was chief, who went south to the corn land.
  11. After him, Corn-Breaker was chief, who brought about the planting of corn.

« PreviousContinue »

  1. After him, the Strong-Man was chief, who was useful to the chieftains.
  2. After him, the Salt-Man was chief; after him the

Little-One was chief.

  1. There was no rain, and no corn, so they moved fur

ther seaward.

  1. At the place of caves, in the buffalo land, they at

last had food, on a pleasant plain.

  1. After the Little-One (came) the Fatigued; after him,

the Stiff-One.

  1. After him, the Reprover; disliking him, and unwilling (to remain),
  2. Being angry, some went off secretly, moving east
  3. The wise ones who remained made the Loving-One
  4. They settled again on the Yellow river, and had

much corn on stoneless soil.

  1. All being friendly, the Affable was chief, the first of

that name.

  1. He was very good, this Affable, and came as a friend to all the Lenape.
  2. After this good one, Strong-Buffalo was chief and pipe-bearer.
  3. Big-Owl was chief; White-Bird was chief.
  4. The Willing-One was chief and priest; he made festivals.
  5. Rich-Again was chief; the Painted-One was chief.
  6. White-Fowl was chief; again there was war, north and south,

« PreviousContinue »

Documentation given with page numbers, Bls missed it. bls opinions. Now some others.

“I discovered evidence that convinced me the legend Walam Olum was a true history. I wrote a book, Frozen Trail to Merica, to explain the
history.” Myron Payne

“Walam Olum is a fascinating document that deserves more study, study without the academic turf protection and careerism that infects so much historical / literary study.  .. You make the connection, the same as I did, between the Cahokia art and the walam Olum. Perhaps those are the connections that Rafinesque made, but does that matter all that much? Rafinesque was a creative artist / naturalist / poet.” Joe Napora

“First to the Wallam Olam and the Welsh connection.  The story of the Wallam Olam is somewhat in a fog.  First, (from what we can glean from Constantine Rafinesque) there was a Dr. Ward who was summoned to the White Water area of Indiana to treat a Native American village whose members were all sick (smallpox?). One of the last surviving men who called himself a “king” asked if he could give this Dr. Ward some sacred information.  The dying Indian told Dr. Ward that the member of the tribe who was originally scheduled to received the information was now dead and there was not left to present the material to him.  The Indian handed Dr. Ward 148 sticks, each with carvings on them.  The University of Georgia attempted to run down the name “Dr. Ward” during the time period.  None were found in Indiana.  But  such a Dr. Ward was found living in Cynthiana, KY and that Dr. Ward was a friend of Rafinesque, so maybe the same one.
Dr. Ward later gave the sticks to Constantine Rafinesque, a professor at Transylvania College in Lexington, KY.  Later Rafinesque and Eli Lilly (of Indiana fame) supposedly went to the tribal area to get more information on the Wallam Olam.  In talking with some surviving elders, they discovered there was a chant that went with each stick. One stick supposedly told of a great flood and another contained the tribe’s creation myth.  The remaining sticks told what happened to various kings during their reigns. Lilly published the Wallam Olam as a book and gave each member of the Indiana Historical Society a copy.
The bards of the Brits also recorded births and deaths of nobility on sticks, and on special occasions they brought them out into the public and sang the stories recorded for everyone to hear. Independent invention? Diffusion?
Obviously at the very least Rafinesque and Lilly would have had some trouble understanding the wording of the Wallam Olam, but they did, I think, the best they could to write down what they heard.
Now the Welsh connection.  Had Rafinesque and Lilly written down Guallam Olam instead of Wallam Olam, they would have been right on target.  In British-Khumary (now Welsh), Guallam Olam (sound familiar?) means “Organization of Everyone.” And how about this? Lleni Llenape translates from Khumric as “Hidden or Secret Knowledge or Lineage.” Do you suppose this misunderstanding may have created a name for a whole new tribe of Native Americans? Many, if not most, of the Native tribes now carry names that were generated from what Europeans heard and wrote down, and some of those were completely off from what the tribes called themselves.” Lee Pennington

What happened to the Delaware? Historical Context for the time frame of annihilation of the Delaware by George Rogers Clark can be seen in George Rogers Clark’s journal. This account verifies the placement of the Delaware in Piqua, Ohio, where the Piqua Ketika Figurines were found. And later in Indiana, Cahokia, Illinois, and Kentucky.
http://books.google.com/books?id=D2gOAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=george+rogers+clark

Readers can see these birchbark scrolls/ sticks at the following link:
http://s243.photobucket.com/albums/ff280/Marburg72/Sacred%20Scrolls%20of%20the%20Southern%20Ojibway/?start=all

Readers can compare other birchbark engravings are found in Russia.
http://gramoty.ru/

1.    George Rogers Clark papers1771– – Volume 8

books.google.com/books?id=z0kSAAAAYAAJ

George Rogers Clark, James Alton James – 1912 – Read – More editions

2.    George Rogers Clark Papers1771-84

books.google.com/books?id=IvM5lQEACAAJ

George Rogers Clark, James Alton James – 1912 – No preview

3.    George Rogers Clark Papers1771-1781

books.google.com/books?id=rOC2lAEACAAJ

George Rogers Clark, James Alton James – 1912 – No preview

4.    George Rogers Clark Papers 1771-1781

books.google.com/books?id=fAhtNAEACAAJ

James James – 1912 – No preview

5.    The A to Z of World War II: The War Against Japan

books.google.com/books?isbn=0810870266

Anne Wells – 2009 – Preview – More editions

James, James A. “An Appraisal of the Contributions of George Rogers Clark to the History of the West.”Mississippi Valley Historical Review 7 (1930): 98–115. ———, ed. George Rogers Clark Papers1771–1781. Vol8. Springfield: Illinois 

6.    The Conquest of the Illinois

books.google.com/books?id=sBowAAAAYAAJ

George Rogers Clark, Milo Milton Quaife – 1920 – Read – More editions

7.    The First Way of War: American War Making on the Frontier, 1607-1814 – Page 155

books.google.com/books?isbn=0521845661

John Grenier – 2005 – Preview – More editions

27 Secret Instructions to Clark, January 2, 1778, George Rogers Clark Papers,1771– 1 781 , ed. James Alton James, Collections of the Illinois State Historical Library, Volume 8, Virginia Series, Volume 3 (Springfield: Illinois State Historical 

8.    Documents of American Indian Diplomacy: Treaties, Agreements, and … – Volume 1 – Page 79

books.google.com/books?isbn=0806131187

Vine DeloriaRaymond J. DeMallie – 1999 – Preview – More editions

SOURCE: James Alton James, ed., George Rogers Clark Papers 1771-1781,vol8 of Collections of the 11linois Historical Library (Springfield, 1912): 65. TREATY WITH THE FOX August 28, 1778 By George Rogers Clark Esqr Collonel in the 

9.    The World, the Flesh, and the Devil: A History of Colonial St. Louis – Page 200

books.google.com/books?isbn=0826219136

Patricia Cleary – 2011 – Preview

As Lawrence Kinnaird noted, without Leyba’s influence and credit, Clark’s situation would have been impossible: American financial support was neglible, Pollock’s supplies  Kinnaird, “Clark-Leyba Papers,” citing James Alton James, ed, George Rogers Clark Papers1771–1781, 8: 19. 32.  C. Draper with Paschal Leon Cerré, St. Louis, October 1846, from Draper Collection of Clark manuscripts, vol8

10.                    The American Revolution in Indian Country: Crisis and Diversity in … – Page 231

books.google.com/books?isbn=0521475694

Colin G. Calloway – 1995 – Preview – More editions

The Chickasaw message is in Draper Mss. iXXso, reprinted in James, ed., George Rogers Clark Papers, 1781-84, 73-5, and Revolution and Confederation, 270-1. See also Clark Papers, 99-104, 123; Virginia State Papers, vol. 3: 277-9, 337-8

 

 

THE LENNI-LENAPE AND THE “RED RECORD”

The “Red Record” (The Wallum Olum) is not new or a recently discovered piece of ancient history. It was given to the white man in 1820, when its last caretaker presented it to a Dr. Ward, a Moravian missionary and physician who had lived among the Lenni-Lenape for a number of years. Dr. Ward had saved the life of the village historian and, as a show of appreciation, the Red Record was given with the statement, “This is like our Bible”.

The Red Record has passed through many hands, but most did not even examine the carved and painted prayer sticks made of bark and wood. Finally, it fell into scholarly hands and the inquiry into its meaning began. As the words and symbols of the Red Record were matched to each other by anthropologists, archealogists and historians, the impact of these writings began to emerge. Each time understanding was near, the writings were pushed aside. There were a number of reasons for this, as there are for all ancient writings as they are discovered.

Firstly, translating and understanding the Red Record would have destroyed the European position that they had taken this land because it was an uncivilized country inhabited by heathen savages. Secondly, it was believed that these heathen savages did not have the mental capacity to maintain a written history of their people. Thirdly, so little was known of the world described by the Red Record that it was passed off as more Native myths and legends.

In spite of this, the inborn curiosity of the intellectual and learned people of history were fascinated by this mystery. With the aerial photographs of Russia, China, Japan and Africa of World War II, and the later, sophisticated photographs and maps from satellites, connections were made with the Red Record which set about the first serious and scientific examination of its meaning. After more than 20 years of work and study, a translation was completed.

In 1976, David McCutchen, a graduate of the University of California at Santa Barbara and the California Institute of the Arts, was hired to research the history of the Delaware Nation. It should be pointed out that the tribal name “Lenni-Lenape” meant the “Original People”. In 1610, Captain Samuel Argall sailed up the Lenape River, and named both the river, and the people living on its banks, the “Delaware” in honor of his patron, Lord De La Warr. From that time on, these people were referred to by outsiders and Europeans as the “Delaware”.

In his work, McCutchen came upon The Red Record, the history of its translation, some of the original wooden prayer sticks, and the original words which described the meanings of the carvings. He completed his study as far as he could, and then proceeded to go to the source. He took the results of his research, photographs of the original prayer sticks, and all materials the curators would allow, to Linda Poolaw, the Grand Chief of the Delaware Nation Grand Council of North America in Oklahoma. With Chief Poolaw’s assistance, McCutchen was able to fill in the blanks, answer remaining questions and complete the final translation of The Red Record. In 1980, the tribal descendents of the Lenni-Lenape passed a resolution endorsing McCutchen’s recreation of the entire Red Record as an accurate re-telling of the history of their people.

As we begin the journey of the Lenni-Lenape, it is important to remember the time frames covered. They did not fly the friendly skies, nor did they take the bus and leave the driving to someone else. THEY WALKED!!

The Red Record begins with the Lenni-Lenape story of the Creation – with Adam and Eve and the Snake of Eden – each with a Native name. Throughout time, the snake has been the Lenni-Lenape symbol for the enemy. The story of man’s struggle continues through the Great Flood, and the re-settling of the land after the waters receded. At the time of the re-settling, there came a common understanding shared by all the people that a great body of water lay to their east. It was their destiny to reach that body of water, and so their migration began.

The first scholar to investigate the Red Record estimates that the migration began 1600 years Before Christ. The people set out from their ancestral home located near the border between present day China, Mongolia and Russia. On their journey eastward, settlements, villages and towns of the various inhabitants along their path were encountered. Some were avoided, and some allowed safe and peaceful passage, but there battles and wars to be fought, especially among the great dynasties of China.

The Lenni-Lenape reached the Bering Straight, which was primarily a land bridge with a small strip of swift and treacherous water between them and the shores of present day Alaska. Realizing that they could not cross the water safely, they camped along the shore waiting for the waters to freeze over. When the freeze came, some 10,000 people made the crossing into the North American Continent. As they traveled inland, they encountered other Natives already living in the area. The main body of the migration divided, with some bearing south into the area of British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest, and others continuing deeper into Canada. Their passage through this territory continues to be evidenced today by marked differences in the appearance and customs of the interior Eskimo, and the coastal Eskimo/Inuit.

During their travels, the Lenni-Lenape encountered many Natives already living and working on the land. When they reached fertile areas where the fishing, hunting and farming were good, they would settle for a time, learn the hunting and farming techniques of the people already there, and replenish their strength and their food supplies. During these times of peace and prosperity, their numbers would increase. Each time the main body of the migration would continue their search for the great water in the east, various groups would remain behind because they had become attached to the area and its life. Others would continue southward, and eventually ended up at the mesas and pueblos of the Anasazi to became their peaceful neighbors. This would account for the oriental features found in the remains of some ancient Anasazi as previously discussed. The groups who settled in various parts of the country eventually took other names more descriptive of their lifestyles, or were given different names by neighboring tribes.

The physical environment, and the attitude of the existing inhabitants, greatly influenced the crossing of this continent. Great droughts forced them to move quickly, and great wars stopped them altogether. Two major conflicts are worthy of mention: one in the Pacific Northwest and one in the Mississippi River Valley. The tribes of the Pacific Northwest, at this time in history, were extremely fierce and war-like, and did not look kindly upon the newcomers. They practiced sorcery and black magic, which were hated by the Lenni-Lenape. A great war broke out and the Lenni-Lenape, who were great warriors, prevailed.

The Mississippi River Valley was lush and fertile, and was looked upon by the Lenni-Lenape as a good place to establish a permanent settlement. They followed it downstream to its junction with the Missouri River where they came face to face with the mighty Talega; The Moundbuilders. Highly sophisticated and intellectual, the center of Talega land was the walled city of Cahokia located near our present East St. Louis. Cahokia was the commercial, political and religious center of the Moundbuilder culture, and has been described as “a cross between New York, Washington, D.C. and the Vatican”.

A message was sent to the Talega leader asking permission for the Lenni-Lenape to settle in their area as friends and allies. Permission for a settlement was denied, but safe passage across their territory was granted. A peaceful crossing was begun, but trouble soon reared its head. Over the generations, the numbers of the Lenni-Lenape had swelled greatly. When the Talega leader saw the thousands of people preparing to cross his land, he panicked. Fearing an invasion, the Talega warriors were ordered to attack, killing those who had already crossed the river. Enraged by this deception, the Lenni-Lenape swore to “Conquer or die”, and called upon the Iroquois (with whom they had established a strong bond) for help. Help was granted.

What followed has been described as one of the largest wars ever fought on the ancient continent. One stronghold, called Fort Ancient, had pallisaded walls 13 feet high and 5 miles long, and could shelter 10,000 people. The war raged over the lifetimes of 4 Lenni-Lenape chiefs before they were finally victorious, driving the Talegas south forever. The Natchez are the descendents of the final remnants of the defeated Talega.

After 9,000 miles, the Lenni-Lenape finally reached that great body of water in the east, and stood on the shores of the Atlantic Ocean in the general vicinity of New Jersey or Delaware. During their migration, their language lay at the root of the Algonquian-speaking people; the most widespread language group in pre-Columbian North America. They were the founding fathers of: The Mohicans; the Nanticokes; the Shawnee; the Ojibwa; The Cree; the Powhatan; the Abenaki; the Massachusetts; the Blackfoot; the Cheyenne; the Munsees; the Yuroks; the Wiyots; the Algonkins; the Montagnais; the Arapahoe; the Menominee; the Potowatomi; the Ottowa; the Sauk; the Fox; the Nipmuc; the Narraganset; the Pequot; the Wampanoag; the Montauk; the Illinois; the Conoy, and surely many others not discovered, all of whom tell the same story of creation and migration, all of whom refer to the Lenni-Lenape as “Grandfather”, and all of whom defer to the Lenni-Lenape as their ancestral elders.

This remarkable story goes far to explain how houses, customs, clothing, art, ceremonies, beliefs, colors and all things great and small can be the same from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from Alaska to Mexico. The last entry into the Red Record was in 1620, and reads “Who are they” referring to the white men in great ships they had met at New York Harbor. However, there is an addition to the Red Record, called “The Fragment”, which picks up the Lenni-Lenape history in the mid-1600’s, and ends in the early 1800’s with their forced removal to “Indian Territory”. The Fragment also ends with a question — “Shall we be free and happy there”?

The Red Record is the oldest written record of a Native North American people, and spans almost 100 generations. It is not a large book, and is fast reading well worth your time. It may be in the history or research section of your library, or any store that carries Native American books can order it for you. Complete information is: “The Red Record: The Wallam Olum”, by David McCutchen, (c) 1993; Avery Publishing Group, Inc., Garden City Park, New York; $14.95.

from Looking Back by Julia White

THE LENNI-LENAPE AND THE “RED RECORD”

The “Red Record” (The Wallum Olum) is not new or a recently discovered piece of ancient history. It was given to the white man in 1820, when its last caretaker presented it to a Dr. Ward, a Moravian missionary and physician who had lived among the Lenni-Lenape for a number of years. Dr. Ward had saved the life of the village historian and, as a show of appreciation, the Red Record was given with the statement, “This is like our Bible”.

The Red Record has passed through many hands, but most did not even examine the carved and painted prayer sticks made of bark and wood. Finally, it fell into scholarly hands and the inquiry into its meaning began. As the words and symbols of the Red Record were matched to each other by anthropologists, archealogists and historians, the impact of these writings began to emerge. Each time understanding was near, the writings were pushed aside. There were a number of reasons for this, as there are for all ancient writings as they are discovered.

Firstly, translating and understanding the Red Record would have destroyed the European position that they had taken this land because it was an uncivilized country inhabited by heathen savages. Secondly, it was believed that these heathen savages did not have the mental capacity to maintain a written history of their people. Thirdly, so little was known of the world described by the Red Record that it was passed off as more Native myths and legends.

In spite of this, the inborn curiosity of the intellectual and learned people of history were fascinated by this mystery. With the aerial photographs of Russia, China, Japan and Africa of World War II, and the later, sophisticated photographs and maps from satellites, connections were made with the Red Record which set about the first serious and scientific examination of its meaning. After more than 20 years of work and study, a translation was completed.

In 1976, David McCutchen, a graduate of the University of California at Santa Barbara and the California Institute of the Arts, was hired to research the history of the Delaware Nation. It should be pointed out that the tribal name “Lenni-Lenape” meant the “Original People”. In 1610, Captain Samuel Argall sailed up the Lenape River, and named both the river, and the people living on its banks, the “Delaware” in honor of his patron, Lord De La Warr. From that time on, these people were referred to by outsiders and Europeans as the “Delaware”.

In his work, McCutchen came upon The Red Record, the history of its translation, some of the original wooden prayer sticks, and the original words which described the meanings of the carvings. He completed his study as far as he could, and then proceeded to go to the source. He took the results of his research, photographs of the original prayer sticks, and all materials the curators would allow, to Linda Poolaw, the Grand Chief of the Delaware Nation Grand Council of North America in Oklahoma. With Chief Poolaw’s assistance, McCutchen was able to fill in the blanks, answer remaining questions and complete the final translation of The Red Record. In 1980, the tribal descendents of the Lenni-Lenape passed a resolution endorsing McCutchen’s recreation of the entire Red Record as an accurate re-telling of the history of their people.

As we begin the journey of the Lenni-Lenape, it is important to remember the time frames covered. They did not fly the friendly skies, nor did they take the bus and leave the driving to someone else. THEY WALKED!!

The Red Record begins with the Lenni-Lenape story of the Creation – with Adam and Eve and the Snake of Eden – each with a Native name. Throughout time, the snake has been the Lenni-Lenape symbol for the enemy. The story of man’s struggle continues through the Great Flood, and the re-settling of the land after the waters receded. At the time of the re-settling, there came a common understanding shared by all the people that a great body of water lay to their east. It was their destiny to reach that body of water, and so their migration began.

The first scholar to investigate the Red Record estimates that the migration began 1600 years Before Christ. The people set out from their ancestral home located near the border between present day China, Mongolia and Russia. On their journey eastward, settlements, villages and towns of the various inhabitants along their path were encountered. Some were avoided, and some allowed safe and peaceful passage, but there battles and wars to be fought, especially among the great dynasties of China.

The Lenni-Lenape reached the Bering Straight, which was primarily a land bridge with a small strip of swift and treacherous water between them and the shores of present day Alaska. Realizing that they could not cross the water safely, they camped along the shore waiting for the waters to freeze over. When the freeze came, some 10,000 people made the crossing into the North American Continent. As they traveled inland, they encountered other Natives already living in the area. The main body of the migration divided, with some bearing south into the area of British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest, and others continuing deeper into Canada. Their passage through this territory continues to be evidenced today by marked differences in the appearance and customs of the interior Eskimo, and the coastal Eskimo/Inuit.

During their travels, the Lenni-Lenape encountered many Natives already living and working on the land. When they reached fertile areas where the fishing, hunting and farming were good, they would settle for a time, learn the hunting and farming techniques of the people already there, and replenish their strength and their food supplies. During these times of peace and prosperity, their numbers would increase. Each time the main body of the migration would continue their search for the great water in the east, various groups would remain behind because they had become attached to the area and its life. Others would continue southward, and eventually ended up at the mesas and pueblos of the Anasazi to became their peaceful neighbors. This would account for the oriental features found in the remains of some ancient Anasazi as previously discussed. The groups who settled in various parts of the country eventually took other names more descriptive of their lifestyles, or were given different names by neighboring tribes.

The physical environment, and the attitude of the existing inhabitants, greatly influenced the crossing of this continent. Great droughts forced them to move quickly, and great wars stopped them altogether. Two major conflicts are worthy of mention: one in the Pacific Northwest and one in the Mississippi River Valley. The tribes of the Pacific Northwest, at this time in history, were extremely fierce and war-like, and did not look kindly upon the newcomers. They practiced sorcery and black magic, which were hated by the Lenni-Lenape. A great war broke out and the Lenni-Lenape, who were great warriors, prevailed.

The Mississippi River Valley was lush and fertile, and was looked upon by the Lenni-Lenape as a good place to establish a permanent settlement. They followed it downstream to its junction with the Missouri River where they came face to face with the mighty Talega; The Moundbuilders. Highly sophisticated and intellectual, the center of Talega land was the walled city of Cahokia located near our present East St. Louis. Cahokia was the commercial, political and religious center of the Moundbuilder culture, and has been described as “a cross between New York, Washington, D.C. and the Vatican”.

A message was sent to the Talega leader asking permission for the Lenni-Lenape to settle in their area as friends and allies. Permission for a settlement was denied, but safe passage across their territory was granted. A peaceful crossing was begun, but trouble soon reared its head. Over the generations, the numbers of the Lenni-Lenape had swelled greatly. When the Talega leader saw the thousands of people preparing to cross his land, he panicked. Fearing an invasion, the Talega warriors were ordered to attack, killing those who had already crossed the river. Enraged by this deception, the Lenni-Lenape swore to “Conquer or die”, and called upon the Iroquois (with whom they had established a strong bond) for help. Help was granted.

What followed has been described as one of the largest wars ever fought on the ancient continent. One stronghold, called Fort Ancient, had pallisaded walls 13 feet high and 5 miles long, and could shelter 10,000 people. The war raged over the lifetimes of 4 Lenni-Lenape chiefs before they were finally victorious, driving the Talegas south forever. The Natchez are the descendents of the final remnants of the defeated Talega.

After 9,000 miles, the Lenni-Lenape finally reached that great body of water in the east, and stood on the shores of the Atlantic Ocean in the general vicinity of New Jersey or Delaware. During their migration, their language lay at the root of the Algonquian-speaking people; the most widespread language group in pre-Columbian North America. They were the founding fathers of: The Mohicans; the Nanticokes; the Shawnee; the Ojibwa; The Cree; the Powhatan; the Abenaki; the Massachusetts; the Blackfoot; the Cheyenne; the Munsees; the Yuroks; the Wiyots; the Algonkins; the Montagnais; the Arapahoe; the Menominee; the Potowatomi; the Ottowa; the Sauk; the Fox; the Nipmuc; the Narraganset; the Pequot; the Wampanoag; the Montauk; the Illinois; the Conoy, and surely many others not discovered, all of whom tell the same story of creation and migration, all of whom refer to the Lenni-Lenape as “Grandfather”, and all of whom defer to the Lenni-Lenape as their ancestral elders.

This remarkable story goes far to explain how houses, customs, clothing, art, ceremonies, beliefs, colors and all things great and small can be the same from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from Alaska to Mexico. The last entry into the Red Record was in 1620, and reads “Who are they” referring to the white men in great ships they had met at New York Harbor. However, there is an addition to the Red Record, called “The Fragment”, which picks up the Lenni-Lenape history in the mid-1600’s, and ends in the early 1800’s with their forced removal to “Indian Territory”. The Fragment also ends with a question — “Shall we be free and happy there”?

The Red Record is the oldest written record of a Native North American people, and spans almost 100 generations. It is not a large book, and is fast reading well worth your time. It may be in the history or research section of your library, or any store that carries Native American books can order it for you. Complete information is: “The Red Record: The Wallam Olum”, by David McCutchen, (c) 1993; Avery Publishing Group, Inc., Garden City Park, New York; $14.95.

from Looking Back by Julia White

http://www.real-dream-catchers.com/history_of_the_ojibways/wallum_olum_of_the_Lenni_Lenape/Lenni-Lenape_and_the_Red_Record.htm

http://books.google.com/books/about/Human_skulls_from_Gazelle_Peninsula.html?id=5woTAAAAYAAJ

http://ohionativeamericans.wikispaces.com/Delaware

 angel on dragonhttp://beforeitsnews.com/economy/2014/11/vision-quest-of-197-global-network-of-nations-embracing-our-worldwide-jubilee-2674456.html

http://beforeitsnews.com/alternative/2014/11/this-information-came-from-high-sources-with-contacts-3057634.html

In addition to burial mounds, I was surprised to discover that the burial sites included “steinsetninger”, stone circles much like those found in Great Britain. I learned that there are many such stone circles in the Scandinavian countries.
a stone circle burial site
A stone circle, a burial site.
another stone circle burial site
Another “steinsetning” stone circle.
We also explored a large stone burial mound erected on the top of a 300 feet high hill. The stone mound at the summit rises another 25 feet. Every one of the thousands of heavy stones used to build the mound had to have been carried up that hill. From this height we would have seen for miles around if there had not been such a heavy growth of mature trees. We assume that the VIP buried here must have been master of all that could have be seen from the hilltop.
Stone burial mound
Stone burial mound at the top of the hill.
Arild on top of the burial mound.Looking down into the mound opening
Arild climbed to the top of the mound and took this picture looking down into the open tomb.
At other sites we saw examples of carved picture stones. Most have been discovered by accident. The carvings are weather-worn and faint. When discovered, they could be observed only when the light hit them from an angle, or by touch. Traces of red pigment were found in the chiseled areas so they have been painted again with traditional red.
Arild Hauge and stone carvings
Halristinger
The upright sticks are vertical staves of the hull frame, not representing men, as I had surmised.
Ship carvings
It looks to me like there is a man overboard! Note the oval shelter on two of the ships, and the elaborate extended prows and sterns.
More ships and men
There appear to be men, animals, and a bird carved on this rock. The ships are very different, too.
Various depictions and symbols
Here we see what appear to be wagons as well as ships and animals. Some of the men seem to be holding shields and weapons. The solid circles are shallow pits, believed to be receptacles for small offerings to be laid on the stone. The lowest “boat” in the center (below what may be a wagon) seems to have either sled runners or outriggers. Is it a boat or a sleigh?
Ships and symbols

http://beforeitsnews.com/paranormal/2014/07/steve-quayle-indians-seeing-stargates-opening-up-2473154.html

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