UCC § 3-414(1)WITHOUT RECOURSE
A phrase meaning that one party has no legal claim against another party.
Please write to :zakiz who is in Texarkana, Texas
:zakiz-anaakwad-spokesperson for little shell people
GREGORY ALLEN DAVIS
NAME & REGISTER NUMBER
|Do not send funds to this address; for more information go to the Inmate Money page. Use this address when sending correspondence and parcels to inmates confined at this camp.INMATE NAME & REGISTER NUMBER
P.O. BOX 9300
TEXARKANA, TX 75505
|MICHAEL HOWARD REED||04414-048||51-White-M||01-26-2019||MARION USP|
NORTH DAKOTA INDIAN TRIBES
Extensive categorization and cross-reference of all North American native american indian tribes of the US and Canada First Nations, by nations, bands, rancheria, pueblo, federally recognized, state recognized, unrecognized, petitions for recognition, by state or providence, and by language group and region of original occupation. You can also find a listing of official tribal web sites on the Internet.
NORTH DAKOTA TRIBES
Federal list last updated 3/07
FEDERALLY RECOGNIZED TRIBES
- Spirit Lake Tribe (formerly Devils Lake)
- Standing Rock Sioux Tribe (North Dakota and South Dakota)
- Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation (Hidatsa, Arikara, Mandan)
- Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians of North Dakota
STATE RECOGNIZED TRIBES
(Not recognized by the Federal Governemnt)
UNRECOGNIZED / PETITIONING TRIBES
- Christian Pembina Chippewa Indians.Letter of Intent to Petition 6/26/1984.
- Little Shell Band of the North Dakota Tribe (a.k.a. Little Shell Pembina Band of North America). Letter of Intent to Petition 11/11/1975. This tribe has been accused of being a domestic terrorist organization by the Anti-defamation League.
FIRST CONTACT TO PRESENT
When the first white explorers arrived, distinct Indian groups existed in what is now North Dakota. These included the Dakota and Nakota nations (The Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota are collectively called Sioux), Assiniboine, Cheyenne, Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara.
Groups of Chippewa (or Ojibway) moved into the northern Red River valley around 1800, and Cree, Blackfeet, and Crow frequented the western buffalo ranges.
These peoples represented two different adaptations to the plains environment.
Nomadic groups depended primarily upon vast herds of American Bison for the necessities of life. When the horse was brought to the Northern Plains in the 18th Century, the lives of the Dakota, Assiniboine, and Cheyenne changed dramatically. These bands quickly adapted to the horse, and the new mobility enabled them to hunt with ease and consequently to live better than ever before. The horse became a hallmark of Plains cultures, and the images of these mounted Indians bequeathed a romantic image of power and strength that has survived in story, films, and songs.
In contrast, the sedentary Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara lived in relatively permanent earthlodges near the Missouri River and supplemented produce from extensive gardens with hunting. Their fortified villages became commercial centers that evolved into trading hubs during the fur trade of the 18th and 19th centuries.
Indians and Euro-Americans came into contact during the 18th Century. The first recorded visitor was La Verendrye, a French explorer who reached the Missouri River from Canada in 1738 while searching for a water route to the Pacific Ocean. Others followed, including La Verendrye’s sons in 1742.
However, most contact resulted from the Canadian fur trade until Meriwether Lewis and William Clark led the American “voyage of discovery” up the Missouri from St, Louis in 1804.
PRE-CONTACT NORTH DAKOTA TRIBES
PRE-HISTORIC CULTURES IN NORTH DAKOTA
- 9,500 BC – Paleo-Indian peoples initially occupied the Northern Plains, hunting mammoths, giant bison, and other mega-fauna. Mining of Knife River Flint, North Dakota’s first export commodity, began in Dunn and Mercer Counties.
- 5,500 BC – Archaic peoples based their lifeways on hunting and gathering of essentially modern fauna since the previous era’s mega-fauna were now extinct. The atlatl, a dart throwing device which drastically increased the range, effectiveness, and safety of hunting, came into use.
- 700 BC – Ceramics were first used in North Dakota for cooking and food storage.
- 550-410 BC – Early Woodland peoples living along the James River in Southeastern North Dakota built a log and brush house. Charred grape chenopod (Goosefoot), and Marshelder seeds were found together in the house remains when they were excavated in A. D. 1985.
- 100 BC – Middle Woodland peoples began building burial mounds in North Dakota, including complex ceremonial centers. The bow and arrow were introduced during this period.
- AD 30 – Jamestown mounds, a complex burial and ceremonial site, were occupied.
- AD 900 – Late Woodland peoples used the bow and arrow extensively, produced ceramics resembling the later Plains Village wares, and gardened intensively.
- AD 950 – Plains Village peoples raised corn and other crops in sufficient quantities to store seed and trade for other goods. Seasonally occupied, permanent villages of earthlodges were built.
- AD 1200 – Jamestown mounds site was abandoned.
- AD 1200-1400 – A drought reduced agricultural production and fewer living sites were established on the open prairies. Plains Village peoples abandoned the lower James River area by A.D. 1300.
- 14th c. Scandinavians in North Dakota?
- AD 1600 – The Cheyenne, living in earthlodges, occupied the Sheyenne River valley; the Hidatsa moved west from Devils Lake to the Missouri; the Sioux moved onto the plains from the woodlands of Minnesota.
Before Euro-American settlement of the Northern Plains began in the 19th Century, the land had been occupied for many centuries. Archeological investigations document the presence of big game hunting cultures after the retreat of the continental glaciers about 10,000 years ago and later settlements of both hunting and gathering and farming peoples dating ca. 2000 B.C. to 1860.
The History of the Anishinabek Nation, begins with the historical Confederacy of Three Fires. The Ojibway, Odawa and Potowatomi Nations formed the Council of the Three Fires, a confederacy of peoples whose languages and territories were close, and who met together for military and political purposes. The Potowatomi Chiefs were Firekeepers. The Council of Three Fires had a number of meeting places: one of the most used, and most central, was Michilimackinack.
During the 1600’s and 1700’s, the Confederacy held the hub of the Great Lakes and maintained relations with the Iroquois Confederacy, The Sauk, Fox, Menominee, Huron, Winnebago, Sioux, British and French Nations, among others. Often these international relations would deteriorate into wards, though most frequently, trade and peaceful co-existence prevailed.
By the mid 1700’s, partly with the encouragement of the British, the Council of Three Fires became the core of the Western of Lakes Confederacy. The Hurons, Algonquins, Nipissing, Sauks, Foxes, and others joined the Confederacy, and this powerful body provided the British with important allies in times of war and a balance to the Iroquois Confederacy to the south and east. The Great Treaty of Niagara of 1764 marked the formal beginning of the peaceful relations with Great Britain.
In 1776, the American Revolutionary War divided the continent, and many of the British as well. Most of the people of the Lakes Confederacy sided with the British, to protect their lands from the American settlers and to honor their alliance with the Crown. After that war, Britain invited many people to cross the lakes and settle on Canadian lands, hoping to gain their military support in any future war with the United States. Many people came: others continued to use the lands of their Nations on both sides of the lakes, ignoring the line that the British and Americans had drawn.
The wars between the Indian Nations and the United States did not end with the making of peace between Britain and the U.S. The Ohio Valley and parts of Michigan continued to be a battleground, and in 1812 the British began to fight the Americans again. In 1815, they again made peace with the United States, and left the Indian Nations to fight alone or make peace alone.
The relations between the Indian Nations and the Crown were usually described as “the Covenant Chain”. On Treaty belts, this appears as two people holding hands, or holding up opposite ends of a chain. As long as they grasp the silver chain firmly, it binds them together in friendship. The Covenant Chain was renewed regularly, in meetings in which the peoples would “remove the tarnish” of any misunderstandings, and strengthen their alliance and mutual protection.
During the 1700’s, the Council of Three Fires had rules of procedure that were as well known and well respected as any that existed in European Parliaments. The Nation that acted as host to the meeting would first perform the ceremony of condolence for the guests, through its speaker.
The condolence ceremony involves removing the person’s mind and senses the burdens and sorrows of deaths and sufferings in his Nation. Through this ceremony, symbolically, the dead are put to rest and out of sight; people’s eyes are cleared of tears so they can see clearly; their ears cleansed so they may hear; their mouths and throats so they may speak freely and without grief; and their hearts so they are not weighed down by sadness. The words of condolence are words of welcome and comfort, and they are answered by Nations invited to the Council in the same way.
Each Nation sat in Council at its own fire within the larger Councils. The Nation’s positions were debated internally first, and when agreement was reached, one speaker from the Nation would make this known to the entire Council. The Chiefs could decide to go to war, but once the decision was made, the conduct of the war was handed over to the War Chiefs: once the hatchet of war was buried the “Peace Chiefs” resumed their control again. All matters were discussed fully, often for days: there was always enough time to spend on important questions to make careful decisions, to get as much agreement as possible, and to give them the importance they deserved.
As the American border became more of a reality, Indian Nations on the south side of the lakes began to make treaties separately with the United States and with Britain: both countries tried to clearly separate “American Indians” from “British Indians”. Even so, the annual gatherings of many Indian Nations to receive the presents promised under the Niagara Treaty also served as a time of Grand Councils.
The presents were gradually discontinued: people living in the United States were cut off between 1837 and 1840, and all others by 1858. The Grand Councils continued, though. Each band had people appointed as runners to carry messages between bands. Chiefs travelled to the Councils with delegations and would stay in tents or people’s houses. The Government paid less attention to Indian Grand Council decisions as Indians became less powerful as military or economic threats or allies.
In the 1830’s, for example, Grand Council warned the Government that the Ojibway people intended to keep the “Saugeen Territory” as their place of final refuge and settlement once the rest of the land of Southern Ontario was taken up and sold. The Government ignored this and took what it thought was a surrender in 1836.
Grand Council records for the years 1840 to 1880 are difficult to locate. Traditional structures and procedures changed: wampum was less important as a means of keeping records when more people could read and write, and since Government no longer responded to the belts. Older ceremonies were replaced by Christian ones, and the meetings began with prayers. Gradually a structured Indian organization came into being, made up of the same Chiefs that had taken part in the older Councils.